By Cosmin Radu Popa

Voltage references signify very important VLSI constructions, having a number of appli- tions in analog and mixed-signal circuits: size gear, voltage re- lators, temperature sensors, information acquisition structures, thoughts, or advert and DA converters. working as a subcircuit in a fancy procedure, an immense requi- ment for this category of circuits is represented by way of the potential for implementation within the current know-how, utilizing the on hand lively and passive units. crucial performances of a voltage reference circuit are represented via temperature habit, strength offer rejection ratio, brief reaction and, for the most recent designs, by means of low-power low-voltage operation. reckoning on the burden - quirements, the output of the circuit should be regulated or unregulated. that allows you to decrease the sensitivity of the reference voltage with admire to the availability voltage adaptations, modi?ed cascode constructions could be carried out, a trade-off among line rules and low-voltage operation being useful as a result. a wide bandwidth of the voltage reference improves the temporary habit of the circuit, implying additionally a great noise rejection. Referringtothe chances ofimplementinga voltagereferencecircuit,two d- ferent ways might be identi?ed: voltage-mode and current-mode topologies, being additionally attainable to layout a mixed-mode voltage reference.

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